After this ill-fated attempt a new city of Carthage was built on the same land by Julius Caesar in 49–44 BC period, and by the 1st century A.D. it had grown to be the second largest city in the western half of the Roman Empire, with a peak population of 500,000. It was the centre of the Roman province of Africa, which was a major breadbasket of the Empire. Among its major monuments was an amphitheater.>Vandals
Thereafter the city became the seat of the praetorian prefecture of Africa, which during the emperor Maurice's reign, was made into an Exarchate, as was Ravenna in Italy. These two exarchates were the western bulwarks of the Roman empire, all that remained of its power in the west. In the early 7th century it was the exarch of Carthage who overthrew emperor Phocas.>Islamic conquests
Roman Carthage was destroyed—its walls torn down, its water supply cut off and its harbours made unusable. It was replaced by Tunis as the major regional centre. The destruction of the Exarchate of Africa marked a permanent end to the Byzantine Empire's influence in the region.