Copper deficiency is causing aneurysms, herniated discs, hemorrhoids, high cholesterol, and emphysema, The median layer of the blood vessel (where the elastin is) is thinner from a deficiency but its elastin copper content is the same as normal men. The overall thickness is not different [Senapati, et al]. Elastin is about as flexible as a rubber band and can stretch to two times its length [Carnes 1977]. The 39 or more different kinds of collagen are about 1000 times stiffer. A healthy artery requires about 1000 mm of mercury or 10 times the normal mean blood pressure in order to rupture [Shadwick]. Therefore keeping strength of arteries up would seem to be even more important than keeping blood pressure down so far as arteries are concerned, although not necessarily so far as kidney glomeruli are concerned. However a copper deficiency coupled with high sodium (or high chloride?) causes disruption of the glomeruli basement membrane resulting in acute kidney failure [Moore].
Copper nutrition is very important in herniated discs, hemorrhoids and aneurisms because copper is essential for lysyl oxidase, which enzyme cross links the elastin tissue. Cross linking is especially crucial for elastin tissue because elastin gets all of its strength from cross linking. The strength of collagen is not as badly affected because of the long length of collagen molecules. However inadequately cross linked collagen is subject to creep.
The articles starting at; http://charles_w.tripod.com/copper.html
would be useful to you, especially copper from food in http://charles_w.tripod.com/copper3.html
. You may see the references in these articles in http://charles_w.tripod.com/copper4.html
. There is also a copper and zinc table at; http://members.tripod.com/~charles_W/copperzinc.html
expressed as weight per calorie, the most useful designation.
There are many less lost time accidents in copper producing industries. I am convinced that this is because of copper's role as part of the enzyme that cross links connective tissue. So, copper nutrition is important for anyone considering or preventing accidental injury or even treating it after the fact.
A copper deficiency also produces high cholesterol [Klevay 1978] [Reiser]. Copper supplements would be infinitely superior to and safer than statin drugs [http://www.health-heart.org/causes.htm
] for lowering cholesterol or eating low cholesterol food [Couzin]. However adding copper without zinc can actually make that situation worse [Festa]. Copper is also essential for an adequate immune system [Prohaska 1981] [Percival]. Premature babies can have too little copper. However babies should be supplemented with extreme care because they can not excrete copper, which is excreted with the bile in adults. This care includes not making formula out of water from copper pipes.
Copper combined with aspirin has been shown to enhance aspirin’s anti inflammatory action against inflammation caused by some poisons [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17657631
REFERENCES For references see [ http://charles_w.tripod.com/copper4.html